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Supporting Secondary School STEM Education for Sustainable Development in Africa.
Bristol /UK
University of Bristol
This study provides the MasterCard Foundation (MCF) with strategic options for improving the quality of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) secondary education across Sub-Saharan Africa, which is essential if countries are to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and close the gap between Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the rest of the world in these fields. Data suggests that there is low student attainment at secondary level, which leads to low enrolment at post-compulsory level. To combat this, the African Union has set out extremely ambitious targets for enrolment in STEM subjects which will require addressing the current poor quality of secondary education. Problems in attainment are evident at primary level, but it is at secondary level that pupils begin to specialise in STEM subjects; hence, the focus of this report. The specific objectives of the report are:
• To consider the role of STEM education in addressing issues around sustainable development and youth unemployment.
• To outline practical challenges facing delivery of STEM education in secondary schools in SSA.
• To understand the barriers to attainment for pupils in STEM subjects.
• To consider examples of successful innovative practice in SSA.
• To consider barriers and facilitators for the scale-up of these practices across SSA.
• To make recommendations to MCF and outline opportunities for future interventions in STEM education.
Inhaltsverzeichnis :
List of Abbreviations 1
Executive Summary 3
Background and introduction to the study 3
Methodology 3
The role of STEM education in sustainable development 3
Overcoming systemic challenges to a good quality STEM education 4
Overcoming classroom challenges in providing good quality STEM education in sub-Saharan
Africa 6
Conclusions and implications for future MCF support for secondary school STEM 8
Chapter one: Background and introduction to the study 10
Chapter two: STEM education for sustainable development 13
1. Sustainable development visions 13
2. Organisation and purpose of secondary education 14
3. Secondary education for sustainable development 16
4. Sustainable work for economic, social and environmental development 17
5. Jobs/Employment: secondary education as preparation for STEM work 18
6. Unpaid work and non-specialist jobs/employment: everyday STEM knowledge 21
7. Voluntary work and creative expression 22
8. Conclusion 23
Chapter three: Overcoming systemic challenges to a good quality STEM education
1. Suitably qualified mathematics, science and ICT teachers 24
2. Class size and level 25
3. Resources 26
4. Programmatic responses 27
5. Outdated curricula and curricular change 29
6. Examinations in STEM subjects 31
7. Conclusion 32
Chapter four: Overcoming classroom challenges in providing good quality STEM
education in sub-Saharan Africa 33
1. Teacher subject knowledge 33
2. Teachers′ pedagogical skills 35
Bristol Working Paper #05/2018
3. Language of instruction 38
4. Formative assessment 39
5. Attitudes and values towards education, mathematics, science and ICT 40
6. Gender 42
7. Conclusion 43
Chapter five: Conclusions and Implications for Future MCF Support for Secondary
School STEM 45
The wide-ranging nature of challenges faced and the need for a strategic approach 45
The importance of context 45
Limited evidence of what works 45
The need for a strategic approach 46
Possible areas for future intervention for MCF 46
References 48
Appendix: Initiatives referred to in the text 53
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