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Evaluating the effectiveness of environmental education essential elements in school field trip programming.
Montreal, McGill University, M. Ed., 2005
This thesis investigated the apparent effectiveness of environmental education essential elements in school field trip programming. First, the elements essential to environmental education field trips were identified from the literature. Second, these elements were incorporated into a questionnaire that was administered as a pre/post test to elementary school students visiting an extensive indoor environmental education facility located in Montreal. Finally, 24 environmental education programs at eight institutions in Montreal were observed to investigate the extent and methodology of implementation of the essential elements. With regard to the chief institution, it was concluded that (1) the educational programming appeared to significantly increase environmental knowledge, and (2) the environmental attitudes were most strongly correlated with student background. Program observation at the eight institutions demonstrated that a wide array of environmental topics was presented, but there was insufficient instruction of environmental issues and action strategies. The list of observed implementation methodologies and the study conclusions could prove useful as a research-based foundation for effective environmental education field trip program development.
Inhaltsverzeichnis :



Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction
1.0 Introduction .
1.1 W orking definition of environmental education
1.2 History of environmental education
1.3 Thesis organization and goals
1.4 Research questions

Chapter 2: Identifying the Essential Elements
2.0 Introduction .
2.1 The essential elements of school science field trips
2.1.1 Reduction of novelty
2.1.2 Local relevance
2.1.3 Active participation
2.1.4 Multi-sensory learning
2.1.5 Cooperative leaming
2.1.6 Constructivism
2.1.7 Attitude towards leaming
2.2 The essential elements of environmental education
2.2.1 Teaching in the environment
2.2.2 Teaching about the environment. Learning themes Environmentalliteracy Knowledge of environmental issues Knowledge of action strategies and implementation skills Skill building
2.2.3 Teaching for the environment Environmental role models Attitude Locus of control and personal responsibility

Chapter 3: Methodology
3.0 General approach
3.1 Research location
3.2 Age focus
3.3 Survey methodology
3.3.1 Procedure
3.3.2 Sources of data
3.3.3 Instrument Introduction Teacher questionnaire Survey section 1: Background Survey section 2: Affective domain Survey section 3: Knowledge
3.3.4 Data analysis
3.4 Program observation methodology
3.4.1 Procedure
3.4.2 Sources of data
3.4.3 Instrument
3.4.4 Data analysis

Chapter 4: Results
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Survey results
4.1.1 Survey reliability
4.1.2 Pre-visit knowledge and attitude
4.1.3 Knowledge gain and attitude change
4.2 Observation results
4.2.1 Descriptive statistics of essential element presence/absence
4.2.2 Essential element implementation methodology Levell: Institutional decisions as they relate to program content Level 2: Teaching methodology (implementation) Level 3: Program evaluation Level 4: Learning themes

Chapter 5: Discussion and Conclusions
5.0 Introduction
5.1 Discussion
5.1.1 Factors influencing knowledge prete st
5.1.2 Factors influencing attitude pretest.
5.1.3 Reduction ofnovelty (and constructivism)
5.1.4 Local relevance
5.1.5 Active participation (and constructivism)
5.1.6 Multi-sensory learning
5.1.7 Cooperative learning
5.1.8 Exposure to nature
5.1.9 Learning themes
5.1.10 Environmental knowledge (environmentalliteracy, environmental issues, and environmental action strategies)
5.1.11 Relevant skills
5.1.12 Environmental role modeis .
5.1.13 Affective domain (environmental attitudes, locus of control, personal responsibility)
5.2 Limitations
5.3 Conclusions

Appendix 1: Section 1 of Survey Instrument: Background
Appendix 2: Section 2 ofSurvey Instrument: Affective do main
Appendix 3: Section 3 of Survey Instrument: Knowledge (Tropical Forest).
Appendix 4: Section 3 of Survey Instrument: Knowledge (Laurentian Forest)
Appendix 5: Section 3 of Survey Instrument: Knowledge (St. Lawrence Marine)
Appendix 6: Instructions for Teachers
Appendix 7: Teacher Questionnaire .
Appendix 8: Teacher Informed Consent Form to Participate in Research
Appendix 9: Observation Guide Instrument.
Appendix 10: Pro gram Instructor Informed Consent Form to Participate in Research
Appendix Il: Ethics Certificate for Survey Study
Appendix 12: Ethics Certificate for Observation Study

Reference List
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