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The utilisation of games technology for environmental design education.
Nottingham, Univ., Ph.D., 2012
Abstract: In recent years, the architectural design process has witnessed a mounting demand for qualified practitioners who can resolve the highly complex social, cultural, technological, and economical issues associated with 'Sustainability'. Designers are thus faced with wider pallet of challenges, developing conceptual designs that are sustainably effective. Pressure is mounting on educational institutions to prepare architects that are well accustomed to the environmental design concepts and parameters, aiming to reduce the impact on the environment and preserve valuable natural resources to bring the building's interior to comfortable living conditions. However, architectural education has been notably slow to respond effectively to the requirements introduced by sustainability. Evidently there are a number of pedagogical challenges that clearly impede the consistent endorsement of sustainability in the design curricula and thus hinder any potential values and opportunities that can result from its effective integration. This research project examines these challenges and investigates more into their nature and attributes. Accordingly, it proposes a method that endeavours to overcome the noted challenge and attempts to improve the design students' motivation and acceptance to incorporate sustainability. In essence, this method aims to mould the technical nature of Building Performance Simulation applications into the cognitive design process. In order to achieve this, the proposed method utilizes 3D games technology, incorporating Multi-Agent System and Data Mining techniques, to assist design students in achieving higher levels of motivation, engagement, and comprehension of the environmental design concepts. The research discusses the rationale for electing the employed technologies and discusses the methodology for developing the proposed tool. Following its development, the tool is presented to number of stakeholders for evaluating the pedagogical and conceptual basis. The recorded results and the provided feedback from these sessions are presented to assess the potential effectiveness of this method for improving students' understanding of various concepts surrounding sustainable design.
Inhaltsverzeichnis :

List of Publications


Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Acronyms

1.1. Paradigm Shift in Design
1.1.1. Sustainability in Building Design
1.1.2. Coupling Design with Performance
1.1.3. Sustainability in Architectural Design Education
1.2. Research Rationale
1.3. Research Aim and Objectives
1.4. Research Scope
1.5. Methodology of Research

2.1. Introduction
2.2. Environmental Design Education
2.2.1. Principles and Objectives for Sustainable Development in Education
2.2.2. Architects′ Learning and Problem-Solving Approach
2.2.3. Architectural Approach for Sustainable Development Education
2.3. Building Performance Simulation (BPS) Applications
2.4. Pragmatic Issues with BPS tools in Architectural Design Education
2.4.1. Motivation for Using BPS Tools Suitability with the Cognitive Creative Nature of Design Suitability to Early Design Stage Preference of Experience and Guidebooks
2.4.2. Complexity of BPS Tools BPS applications′ Learning Curve Simulation Process Procedure
2.4.3. Simulation Data Visualisation and Analysis Design vs. Simulation Visualisation Techniques Attempts for Improving Simulation Data Representation Defining Patterns and Performance Problems Simulation as a Decision Support System Spatiotemporal Dimension of Simulation Data
2.5. Chapter Discussion and Summary
2.5.1. Conceptual Requirements for the Proposed Tool
2.5.2. Environmental Design and the Game Context

3.1. Introduction
3.2. The Gaming Generation
3.3. Games in Education
3.3.1. Serious Games
3.3.2. Motivational Nature of Games
3.3.3. Interactive Narrative Structure
3.4. Games in Architectural Design & Education
3.4.1. Game Engines
3.4.2. Interactive 3D Design Visualisation
3.5. Discussion and Concluding Notes

4.1. Introduction
4.2. Multi Agent Systems Technology
4.2.1. What is a Multi Agent System (MAS) ?
4.2.2. Rationale for Utilising Multi Agent Systems
4.3. Games′ Multi-Agent System
4.3.1. Multi Agent Systems and Games′ Narrative
4.4. Integrating Multi Agent Systems and Data Mining
4.4.1. What is Data Mining ?
4.4.2. Data Mining in the Knowledge Discovery Process
4.4.3. Data Mining Types and Techniques
4.4.4. Coupling Data Mining and Multi Agent Systems in BPS Analysis
4.5. Discussion

5.1. Introduction
5.2. Preparation
5.2.1. BPS Application
5.2.2. Game Engine
5.2.3. Case Study
5.3. Game Development Methodology
5.4. Requirement Specifications
5.5. Conceptual Design
5.5.1. Abstraction
5.5.2. Refinement
5.5.3. Modularity
5.5.4. System Architecture
5.5.5. Interface Design
5.6. Detailed Design and Implementation
5.6.1. Multi Agent System Implementation Retrieving Agent Analysis Agent Reporting Agent
5.6.2. Data Sources and Data Structures Building Performance Simulation Data The CAD Model Psychrometric Chart Sun-Path Diagram User-Defined Data
5.6.3. Game Features and Functionalities Initial zone brief Calculating the Comfort Range Assessing Daylight Factor Zone Reports Daily Reports Tab Monthly and Yearly Reports Tabs Zone Overview Tab Interrogation routines Sun-path Analysis and Representation Guidelines General guidelines Zone-specific Guidelines
5.6.4. Gameplay The Challenge The Rules The story The Interaction
5.7. Game′s e-Tutoring
5.7.1. Motivation and Learner′s Autonomy
5.7.2. Reflection
5.7.3. Assessment and Feedback
5.8. Chapter Summary

6.1. Introduction
6.2. Methodology and Scope of Users Testing
6.2.1. Initial Users. Review and Evaluation
6.2.2. Post-Development Detailed Trials
6.3. Post-Development User Trials. Analysis
6.3.1. Section One: Digital 3D Modelling Results Presentation Discussion
6.3.2. Section Two: Games in Design Visualisation and Education Results Presentation Discussion
6.3.3. Section Three: Using BPS Applications Results Presentation Discussion
6.3.4. Section Four: The Tool′s Conceptual and Pedagogical Aspects Results Presentation Rating the Proposed Method The Proposed Tool as a Decision Support System General overview of the Proposed Method′s Conception Discussion
6.3.5. Section Five: The Tool′s Technical and Functional Aspects Results Presentation Discussion
6.4. Chapter Summary and Discussion

7.1. Reflective Review
7.1.1. Objective [A]: Challenges Surrounding Sustainability Integration
7.1.2. Objective [B]: Effectiveness of 3D Games as Virtual Learning Contexts
7.1.3. Objective [C]: MAS & DM for Knowledge Extraction & Data Representation
7.1.4. Objective [D]: Developing the Environmental Design Game
7.1.5. Objective [E]: Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Proposed Method
7.2. Limitations and Recommendations for Further Development
7.2.1. Functional Limitations
7.2.2. Conceptual Limitations
7.2.3. Usability Limitations
7.3. Concluding Notes


Appendix [A] - Requirement Specifications
Conceptual Requirements
Functional Requirements
Non-Functional Requirements
Technical Requirements
Appendix [B] . Interviews & Questionnaire
Pre-Development and In-Development Interviews
Post Development Questionnaire:
Part One: The Design Process & Sustainability
Part Two: The Proposed Environmental Design Game
Appendix [C] . Selected Participants′ Responses
Appendix [D] . Environmental Design Strategies & Guidelines
Appendix [E] . UML Class Diagram
Appendix [F] . Calculations Equations
Temperature Comfort Range
Effective Area of Openings
Cross Ventilation
Single Sided Ventilation
Stack Ventilation - Buoyancy Driven
Interrogation routines
Appendix [G] . Ecotect.s LUA Code
Appendix [H] . Game Implementation Code
Retrieving, Filtering, and Storing Simulation Data
Building the Game.s Informational Model
Analysis Operations
Generating Reports
Identifying Problems. Causalities
Implementing Interrogation Routines
Generating Zone.s Guidelines
Classes Definitions
Appendix [I] . The Game′s DVD
Disc Contents
System Requirements
Running the Game
Game Controls
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