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Coral reefs - Australian sites for learning environmental education Coral reefs - learning environmental education.
Abstract: Coral reefs are critical for biodiversity, food habitats and as tourist destinations, but they are in serious decline around the world. Humans are a major cause of this problem. Here we explore high school students′ educational reef experiences with respect to specific learning outcomes. Students were surveyed and interviewed as they were trained in coral reef ecology and monitoring in both the classroom and at various sites in the Great Barrier Reef. The Three A′s of Coastal and Marine Studies (Marine Education Society of Australasia) are awareness, attitudes and action. This presupposes a learning situation where a gain in knowledge (awareness) will lead to a change in attitude, and thereby improve positive personal actions toward marine environments. This research analyses the link between the knowledge-attitude-action variables in relation to the effect of direct reef experience. This work addressed the question of proximal relations between humans and coral reefs. It brought together literature and techniques from varying disciplines to generate statistical findings, while student accounts confirmed the learning value of structured activities underwater as part of reef trips.
Inhaltsverzeichnis :
Statement of Access
Statement of Sources
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Acronyms

Chapter 1 How This Marine Education Study Came About
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Motivation for Study
1.3 The Study is Timely
1.4 Knowledge (awareness), Attitude, Action
1.5 Call for Marine Experiential Education
1.6 The Study and Approaches
1.7 Contribution of Research in Practice
1.8 Synopsis

Chapter 2 Literature Review: Historical Perspective on Marine Education
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Environmental Education:
2.2.1 Environmental Education Definition
2.2.2 Creation of the Awareness-Attitude-Action Objectives
2.2.3 The Lucas Model
2.2.4 Developments in Environmental Education
2.2.5 Behaviouralism Challenged
2.3 Experiential Education
2.3.1 Changing Educational Frameworks
Coral reef ... education
2.3.2 Levels of Environmental Knowledge in High Schools
2.4 Marine Education
2.4.1 Interdisciplinary Issues in Queensland Marine Education
2.4.2 Background Information for Marine Education in Queensland
2.5 The Knowledge (Awareness)-Attitude-Action Relationship
2.5.1 Australian Research
2.5.2 International Research
2.5.3 Attitudinal Studies in Marine Education
2.6 Chapter Summary

Chapter 3 Theoretical Framework: Methodological, epistemological and ontological approaches
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Problem and Related Theories
3.2.1 Research Problem
3.2.2 Knowledge-Attitude-Action Relationship Model (K-A-A)
3.2.3 The Model of Responsible Environmental Behaviour (REB)
3.2.4 The New Environmental Paradigm Model (NEP)
3.2.5 The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TpB) the subjective norm. perceived behavioural control. environmental attitude. ecological intention to act. compatibility.
3.3 Model of Ecological Intention to Act (MEIA)
3.4 Multi-Method Project Design
3.5 Qualitative Theoretical Framework
3.5.1 Summary-aided Approach to Analysis
3.5.2 Qualitative Data Analysis
3.6 Chapter Summary

Chapter 4 Procedures and Field Trips: The Students, Schools and Educational Interventions
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Preparations
4.2.1 Ethics and Safety Considerations
4.2.2 Pilot Study
4.2.3 Participating Queensland High Schools
4.3 Student Study Population Characteristics
4.4 Learning Interventions
4.4.1 Introduction
4.4.2 Classroom Presentation
4.4.3 Reef Experience
4.4.4 The Conduct of One-day Reef Trips
4.5 Southern Cross Catholic College Week-long Excursion to Northwest Island
4.6 Chapter Summary

Chapter 5 The Research Approach
5.1 Introduction
5.2 The Study Population
5.3 Pilot Study
5.4 Quantitative Methodology
5.4.1 Experimental Design
5.4.2 Design of Survey Questionnaire
5.4.3 Research Orientation
5.4.4 Schedule of School Research
5.4.5 Educational Effects and Hypotheses
5.5 Quantitative Data Analysis
5.6 Qualitative Research Methodology and Analysis
5.6.1.Qualitative Approach
5.6.2 Interviews
5.7 Limitations
5.7.1 Limitations of the Research Methodology
5.7.2 Limitations of the Research Data Collection
5.7.3 Limitations of the Research Analysis
5.8 Chapter Summary

Chapter 6 Quantitative Results - Unpacking Knowledge-Attitude-Action Relationship
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Data for Analysis and Interpretation
6.2.1 Independent and Dependent Variables
6.2.2 Study Population Description
6.2.3 Interventions and the Survey Instrument
6.2.4 Exploratory Statistical Analysis environmental knowledge. environmental attitudes. ecological intention to act. demographic relationships.
o previous reef experience
o swimming
o snorkelling
o camping
o watching nature channels on tv
6.2.5 Gender environmental knowledge. environmental attitudes. ecological intention to act. gender and previous reef experience. gender and previous snorkelling experience. gender and previous camping experience. gender and previous experience watching nature channels on TV.
6.3 Discussion Quantitative Results
6.4 Chapter Summary

Chapter 7 Qualitative Findings: Student Accounts
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Data Collection
7.3 Interviews
7.4 Student Accounts in Relation to Research Questions
7.5 Marine Studies Curriculum and Student Accounts
7.6 Chapter Summary

Chapter 8 Discussion and Conclusion
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Review of Significant Findings in Light of Existing Research
8.3 The Model of Ecological Intention to Act (MEIA)
8.4 Limitations of the Research
8.5 Contribution of Qualitative Research
8.6 Implications for Educational Practice
8.7 Possibilities for Further Research
8.8 Contributions to Marine Education
8.9 Conclusion
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