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BNELIT - Datenbank zu Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung: wissenschaftliche Literatur und Materialien
Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung: wiss. Literatur und Materialien (BNELIT)
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Environmental Impact of Products (EIPRO).
Analysis of the life cycle environmental impacts related to the final consumption of the EU-25
This study supports the development of an EU Integrated Product Policy by clarifying which products have the greatest environmental impacts from a life-cycle perspective. A methodology was developed and applied which builds on the methods and results of previous research as far as possible and complements this with a new systematic analysis of the environmental impacts of products for the EU-25. The new analysis was done with an environmentally extended input-output model that allowed distinguishing several hundreds of products. The methodology and results were discussed with experts and stakeholders in a series of workshops and meetings. The study shows that food and drink, cars and products for housing are particularly relevant for the environment.
In addition to the main report there is an Annex report with more details on sources of information, methodology, data and results.
Inhaltsverzeichnis :
Table of contents


Summary of project set-up, methodology and results
I. Introduction

II. Objective

III. Research team and process

IV. Methodology
Definitions of product aggregates

V. Scope
A two-step approach
Analysis of existing studies

VI. Results
New environmental input-output analysis model for the EU-25
Reliability of the model
General results
Detailed results

VII. Final results for each functional area of consumption
Environmental impact
Impact per euro spent

VIII. Conclusions

1 Introduction
1.1 Background: Integrated Product Policy
1.2 Project set-up

2 Goal and scope
2.1 Objectives of the project
2.2 Specification of the goal and scope

3 Existing studies: lessons for the approach to EIPRO
3.1 Introduction
3.2 A first review of existing research
3.2.1 Selection
3.2.2 Evaluation of the studies
3.3 Bottom-up and top-down approaches
3.1 Combination of existing and new research

4. Approach 1: Analysis of existing studies
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Method of analysis and comparison
4.2.1 Introduction
4.2.2 Product categories and aggregation
4.2.3 Environmental indicators
4.3 Results per study
4.3.1 Introduction
4.3.2 Reference study no. 1 Dall et al. (2002)
4.3.3 Reference study no. 2 Nemry et al. (2002)
4.3.4 Reference study no. 3 Kok et al. (2003)
4.3.5 Reference study no. 4 Labouze et al. (2003)
4.3.6 Reference study no. 5 Nijdam and Wilting (2003)
4.3.7 Reference study no. 6 Moll et al. (2004)
4.3.8 Reference study no. 7 Weidema et al. (2005)
4.4 Comparison of results per environmental theme
4.4.1 Introduction
4.4.2 Comparison of results on greenhouse effect
4.4.3 Comparison of results on acidification
4.4.4 Comparison of results on photochemical ozone formation (smog)
4.4.5 Comparison results on eutrophication
4.4.6 Comparison of results on resources
4.4.7 Comparison of results on land use
4.4.8 Comparison of results on water use
4.4.9 Comparison of results on energy
4.4.10 Comparison of results on waste generation
4.5 Conclusions – analysis of existing studies

5. Approach 2: Analysis with CEDA EU-25
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Input-output analysis: principles and model outline
5.2.1 The principle of an environmental input-output analysis
5.2.2 The CEDA EU-25 model: an overview
5.2.3 The CEDA EU-25 model: outline of the data inventory
5.2.4 The CEDA EU-25 model: outline of the impact assessment and interpretation
5.3 Detailed discussion of the CEDA EU-25 Products and Environment model
5.3.1 Introduction
5.3.2 Technology matrix 1: the production technology matrix (A11)
5.3.3 Technology matrix 2: the technology matrix for final consumption activities (A22)
5.3.4 Technology matrix 3: the technology matrix for disposal activities (A33)
5.3.5 Matrix 1 linking production-consumption: Sales from production sectors to final consumption (A12)
5.3.6 Matrix 2 linking production-consumption: Sales from disposal services sectors to final consumption (A32)
5.3.7 Matrix 3 linking production-consumption: Sales from production sectors to disposal services sectors (A13)
5.3.8 Matrix 4 linking production-consumption: Sales from disposal services sectors to production sectors matrix (A31)
5.3.9 Environmental intervention by production sectors matrix (B1)
5.3.10 Environmental intervention by consumption activities matrix (B2)
5.3.11 Environmental intervention by disposal activities matrix (B3)
5.3.12 Final demand: Consumption activity expenditure vector (k2)
5.3.13 Results, as environmental interventions vector (m)
5.3.14 Conversion tables for product and activity classifications
5.4 Results of the CEDA EU-25 Products and Environment model
5.4.1 Introduction
5.4.2 Environmental impacts of products: full consumption
5.4.3 Environmental impacts of products per euro spent
5.4.4 Environmental effects of consumption: aggregation to COICOP level 1
5.5 Interpretation of results
5.5.1 Introduction
5.5.2 Reliability of input data: analysis and conclusions
5.5.3 Validity of the model: analysis and conclusion
5.5.4 Quality of CEDA EU-25 results
5.6 Conclusions – on the CEDA EU-25 Products and Environment model

6. Final comparison and concluding discussion on EIPRO
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Completeness in results
6.3 Conclusions at COICOP level 1 (12 functional areas)
6.4 Conclusions below COICOP Level 1
6.4.1 Introduction
6.4.2 Approach and overview
6.4.3 Discussion per main COICOP category
6.5 Impacts per euro spent and other conclusions
6.5.1 Impacts per euro spent
6.5.2 Impacts of shifts in consumption structures
6.5.3 The focus question: How many products cover the most of the impact?
6.4 Reflections on the approaches used and further work
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