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BNELIT - Datenbank zu Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung: wissenschaftliche Literatur und Materialien
Bildung für nachhaltige Entwicklung: wiss. Literatur und Materialien (BNELIT)
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Learning to be.
The world of education today and tomorrow.
For many generations the sole purpose of education was to transmit values, knowledge and skills which the adult world recommended to, or forced on, young people, in order to incorporate them in its society; hence, education could be wholly included in the state's duties towards its citizens, the schoolmaster's transmission of knowledge to his pupils and the child's relationship with its parents in the family.
Inhaltsverzeichnis :
Preamble xvii
Part One: Findings
CHAPTER 1 The question of education 3
The heritage of the past 3
Education as biological necessity - Education as social necessity - Primitive society - African tradition - Birth of the school - Written tradition Masters and pupils - Asiatic tradition - Graeco-Roman tradition - The Christian school -Islamic education - Mediaeval model of the university - Advent of modern times - The industrial revolution - Transplanted models - Entering the modern age Current characteristics 12
Three new phenomena - Education precedes - Education foresees Societies reject school leavers - Common trends - Educational reforms Structural transformations - Radical criticism - Dissent
CHAPTER 2 Progress and dead ends 24
Needs and demand 26
Definitions - Four remarks - Demographic factors - Economic development requirements - Political considerations - Effects of pressure from the people - Sociology of the demand for education - Regional distribution of demand Expansions and limits 35
Expansion speeded - Towards universal school enrolment - Recruiting teachers - Out-of-school potential - Partly deceptive figures - Literacy and illiteracy - Lessons from literacy campaigns Resources and means 40
World expenditure - Budgetary expenditure - Educational expenditure and G N P - Comparative increase in costs - School wastage - Distribution of financial resources - Special financial treatment for schools - Slower rates o f increase - Criteria: rigid or variable? - Restructuring expenditure xiii Imbalance and inequality 49
Regional inequalities - Distribution of teachers - Education for girls and women - Information media - Setbacks
CHAPTER 3 Education and society 55
Education and society: four schools of thought Traditions and constraints 57
Self-perpetuating function of education - Use and abuse of civic training - Hierarchies - Elitism - Blocked societies - Education an image Education renews
Methods and content 61
Cultural communication - The spoken word - The written word - Pictures - Misusing media - Subject hierarchies - Anachronism and omissions in programmes - Outdated curricula - Social education - Scientific education -Technological education - Artistic education -Vocational training - Manual education - Physical education The path to democracy 70
Progress in democratizing education - Persistent privilege - Equal access—unequal opportunity - Inequalities at university level - Palliatites - Internal obstacles- Marking systems, selection, examinations and diplomas -Teacher-pupil relationship - Co-management and selfmanagement EPILOGUE I Old concepts and new needs 81
Part Two: Futures
CHAPTER 4 Challenges 87
The leap 87
The dizzying future - Exciting and terrifying prospects - A scientific frame of mind Gaps 92
Disparate factors - Unemployment - The least favoured - Widening gap - Need for economic expansion - Search for solutions -A world approach - New meaning of 'gap' - Inspiration for education Environment in peril 99
Disorderly expansion - Ecological disequilibrium hreats 101
Fortunes and misfortunes of democracy - Upheavals in private life
CHAPTER 5 Discoveries 105
New findings from research 106
Brain research - Infant malnutrition - Contributions from psychology - Behaviourism - Genetic epistemology - Forming the cognitive process - xiv
Algorithms - Structuralism - Pedagogical applications of psychological research - General and applied linguistics - Contributions from anthropology - Theory of information - Semeiology - Cybernetics New developments from science and technology 116
Pedagogy, ancient art and new science - From initial to continual education - Psychopedagogic phases - Psychology of early childhood Psychopedagogy in adulthood - Group pedagogy and personalization Group techniques - Institutional pedagogy - Theory and technology of communication - Direct-wire television - Radio - Space communications - Data processing - Computer-assisted teaching - Intellectual revolution - Ergonomy - Operational research - Systems analysis - Interdisciplinary links - Changing educational action - Integrating technology into the system - Intermediate technologies - Using the people's energies
New inventions from practical applications 134
Innovating from practice - Individualized teaching - New clients Modification of the teacher's role - Changing school architecture - School and society link e d-Freedom from constraint-Education as liberationFunctional literacy -Developing the concept of lifelong education Over-all educational process
CHAPTER 6 Goals 145
Towards a scientific humanism 146
Scientific thought and language - Rules of objectivity - Relativity and dialectical thought - Training scientific minds For creativity 148
Security and adventure - Quest for new values - Thought and action Towards social commitment 150
Political education - The practice of democracy - Politics in school - Participation Education in economics - International education
Towards the complete man 153
Man's powers - Man divided - Dimensions of the complete man - Abstract man and concrete man - Unfinished man
EPILOGUE II A learning society: today and tomorrow 160
Part Three: Towards a learning society CHAPTER 7 Role and function of educational strategies 169
Policy, strategy, planning 169
Choices - Orientations - Methods Characteristics of educational strategies 172
Quantitative expansion Specificity - Interrelationships - i n t e g r a t e d educational objectives - O v e r-all vision xv
CHAPTER 8 Elements for contemporary strategies 177
Dual measures - National characteristics - International inspiration Improvements and reforms 178
Motivations - Infinite range of internal modifications - Encouragement from the top - Initiative from below Innovations and search for alternatives 181
Guiding principle for educational policies - Over-all perspective - Less formalism in institutions - Mobility and choice - Pre-school education Basic education - Broadening general education - Maximum vocational mobility -Educational role of commerce and industry - Variety in higher education - Selection criteria - Adult education - Literacy - Self-learning - Educational technology - Application of new techniques - Status of teachers - Teacher training - Conventional and non-conventional educators - Learner's place in school life - Learner's responsibilities Ways and means 223
Diagnosis of systems - Identifying disequilibrium - Choice of options Experiment - Logistic element - Networks for change - Seemingly contradictory requirements - Functional reorganisation - Participation Financing - Increasing expenditure - Diversifying resources - Reducing costs - General orientations and particular applications
CHAPTER 9 Roads to solidarity 235
Solidarity among all countries - Combination of all efforts - Making aid unnecessary - Crisis in international co-operation Causes and reasons 236
Traditional forms of co-operation - Enlarging scope - Aid supplements national resources - Aid promotes innovation Co-operation and exchange of experience 238
Intellectual co-operation - Student and teacher mobility - Equivalence of diplomas - Programmes for international understanding - Exchange of experts - Training abroad - Brain drain - Unesco Sources and modes of assistance 250
Technical and financial aid - Loans for education - International aid: distribution and conditions -Tied aid - Correlation between aid to education and global development strategy - New terms for action - The spirit of invention - Political determination, exchanges, resources International Programme for Educational Innovation
Appendixes 265
Index 301
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