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Paradigms lost : learning from environmental mistakes, mishaps and misdeeds.

Engineers and scientists have made great progress in advancing the understanding of the principles underlying environmental quality and public health. However, all too often, society and the scientific community do not realize the connections between environmental occurrences. In their haste to remedy a situation, they overlook lessons that could be learned to prevent future disasters. Paying attention to the past instructs us about the future.

Paradigms Lost combines the historical case perspective with credible and sound scientific explanations of key environmental disasters and problems. The author sorts through natural disasters and human mistakes from Love Canal, New York to Bhopal, India to provide larger lessons that can be applied by scientists, engineers and public safety officials. The analysis of these events includes viable alternatives for future generations.

· Includes alternative approaches to environmental issues from preventative measures to contingency plans

· Richly annotated with sidebars, discussion boxes and generous examples

· A usable tool for all professionals from lawyers to chemical engineers
Inhaltsverzeichnis :

Preface and Introduction
Structure and Emphasis
Quality Control
Notes and Commentary
New Science and New Paradigms
Lessons Learned: A Case Approach to Environmental Problems
MTBE and Cross-Media Transfer
The Incremental Effect
Failure and Blame
A Lesson from the Medical Community
Professional Accountability
Villain and Victim Status
Other Lessons: Risk and Reliability
Environmental Ethics and a New Environmental Ethic
Notes and Commentary
Pollution Revisited
DDT versus Eco-Colonialism: Trading Risks
Characterizing Pollutants
Partitioning to Solids-Sorption
Partitioning to the Liquid Phase-Dissolution
Partitioning to the Gas Phase-Volatilization
Solubility as a Physical and Chemical Phenomenon
Partitioning to Organic Tissue
Emissions, Effluents, Releases, Leaks, and Spills
Notes and Commentary
Key Environmental Events by Media
Fluids in the Environment: A Brief Introduction
Three Major Media
Something in the Air
London Air Pollution and the Industrial Revolution
Contaminants of Concern: Sulfur and Nitrogen Compounds
Notorious Air Pollution Cases of the Twentieth Century
The Meuse Valley Acid Fog
Contaminants of Concern: Particulate Matter
Donora, Pennsylvania
Poza Rica, Mexico
Contaminant of Concern: Hydrogen Sulfide
London, England
New York City
Toxic Clouds
The Bhopal Tragedy
Preparing for Intentional Toxic Clouds
Airshed in the Developing World: Mexico City
Lessons Learned
Contaminant of Concern: Photochemical Oxidant Smog
Notes and Commentary
Watershed Events
The Death of Lake Erie: The Price of Progress?
Cuyahoga River Fire
Lesson Learned: The Need for Regional Environmental Planning
Spills: Immediate Problem with Long-Term Consequences
Torrey Canyon Tanker Spill
Santa Barbara Oil Spill
Exxon Valdez Spill: Disaster Experienced and Disaster Avoided
Prestige Oil Spill
Lessons Learned: Two-Edged Swords
Pfiesteria piscicida: Nature Out of Sync
Lesson Being Learned
Notes and Commentary
Landmark Cases
Love Canal, New York
Hazardous Waste Cleanup
A Fire that Sparked Controversy: Chester, Pennsylvania
Dioxin Contamination of Times Beach
A Terrifying Discovery: Valley of the Drums
Stringfellow Acid Pits
The March Continues
Lessons Learned
Failure to Grasp the Land Ethic
Disasters: Real and Perceived
"Cancer Alley" and Vinyl Chloride
Bioaccumulation and Its Influence on Risk
The Kepone Tragedy
Biological Response
Organic versus Inorganic Toxicants
Pesticides and Sterility
Jersey City Chromium
Radiation Poisoning in Goiania, Brazil
Factors of Safety
Small Numbers and Rare Events
Exposure Estimation
Risk-Based Cleanup Standards
The Drake Chemical Company Superfund Site: A Risk-Based Case
Risk Assessment: The First Step
Notes and Commentary
By Way of Introduction
Asian Shore Crab
Zebra Mussel Invasion of the Great Lakes
Lesson Learned: Need for Meaningful Ecological Risk Assessments
Notes and Commentary
Environmental Swords of Damocles
The Tragedy of the Commons
Global Climate Change
The Greenhouse Effect
Persistent, Bioaccumulating Toxicants
The Inuit and Persistent Organic Pollutants
Extrinsic Factors
Endocrine Disrupting Compounds
Lake Apopka: A Natural Experiment
Genetic Engineering
Nuclear Fission
Meltdown at Chernobyl
Ecosystem Habitat Destruction
Lessons Learned
The Butterfly Effect
Notes and Commentary
Other Paradigms
Dropping Acid and Heavy Metal Reactions
Case of the Negative pH: Iron Mountain, California
Acid Mine Drainage
Acid Precipitation
Lead: The Ubiquitous Element
Coeur d'Alene Valley and the Bunker Hill Lead Smelter
Mercury: Lessons from Minamata
Arsenic Tragedy in Bangledesh
Asbestos in Australia
Notes and Commentary
Spaceship Earth
Changes in the Global Climate
Carbon Dioxide
Nitrous Oxide
Halocarbons and Other Gases
Land Use and Forestry
Threats to the Stratospheric Ozone Layer
Coral Reef Destruction
Syllogisms for Coral Reef Destruction
Notes and Commentary
Myths and Ideology: Perception versus Reality
Solid Waste: Is It Taking over the Planet?
Alar and Apples
Parent versus Progeny
Agent Orange: Important If True
The Snail Darter: A Threat to the Endangered Species Act?
Seveso Plant Disaster
Poverty and Pollution
Notes and Commentary
Just Environmental Decisions, Please
Environmental Justice
How Can Engineers Best Manage Risks in a Changing Environment?
Optimization in Environmental Risk Management
Precautionary Principle and Factors of Safety in Risk Management
Market versus Non-Market Valuation: Uncle Joe the Junk Man
The Warren County, North Carolina, PCB Landfill
The Orange County, North Carolina, Landfill
If It Does Occur, It Is Not Bad
If It Does Occur and It Is Bad, It Is Not Racially Motivated
Is Environmentalism a Middle-Class Value?
Habitat for Humanity
Carver Terrace, Texas
West Dallas Lead Smelter
Lessons Applied: The Environmental Justice Movement
Environmental Justice and the Catalytic Converter
Notes and Commentary
What Is Next?
Bottom Lines and Top of the Head Guesses
The Future of Environmental Science and Engineering
The Systematic Approach
New Thinking
The Morning Shows the Day
Notes and Commentary
Government Reorganizations Creating the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and
the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
Reliability in Environmental Decision Making
Principles of Environmental Persistence
Cancer Slope Factors
Equations for Calculating Lifetime Average Daily Dose (LADD) for Various Routes of
Characterizing Environmental Risk
Risk-Based Contaminant Cleanup Example
Shannon Weiner Index Example
Useful Conversions in Atmospheric Chemistry